Risk Factors for Violence

Individual Risk Factors:

Having been a victim of violence


Learning Disorders

History of early aggressive behavior

Use of drugs, including alcohol or tobacco

Low IQ

Poor impulse control

Deficiencies in social problem solving skills

High degree of negative emotion

Belief that antisocial behavior is acceptable

Family violence and conflict

Family Risk Factors

Harshly punitive childrearing practices

Lax, neglectful, or inconsistent childrearing

Low time spent by parent on/with child

Low emotional attachment to parent

Low education of parent

Low income of parent

Parental substance abuse

Criminal behavior by parent

Difficulties in family functioning

Low supervision or monitoring of children by adults

Peer and Social Risk Factors

Peers who engage in antisocial behavior

Gang involvement

Being rejected by peers

Lack of prosocial activities to be involved in

Low academic performance

Apathy about schoolwork

Failure in schoolwork

Community Risk Factors

Low opportunities for good jobs

Poverty in the neighborhood

Low fraction of permanent residents in neighborhood

Many disrupted families in neighborhood

Low involvement of neighborhood people in community

Protective Factors

Individual Protective Factors

Intolerant attitude toward antisocial behavior

High IQ

Good grades in school

Desire for education

Oriented toward positive social outcomes

Liked by peers

Positive social skills

Skills for planning and achieving goals

Religious or philosophical beliefs discouraging violence

Family Protective Factors

Person is connected to family members

Communication with parents about problems

High expectations by parents for school performance

Mutually gratifying activities with parents

Regular presence of parent during at least one transition time: awakening, mealtime, bedtime, arrival home from school...

Social activities carried out with the family

Positive models of problem-solving by family members

Peer and Social Protective Factors

Good relationships with prosocial peers at school

Motivation to do well in school

Belonging to prosocial groups

Doing prosocial activities

School climate where reasonable rules are enforced and followed

School climate where a cooperative spirit exists between students and staff